Work Package 4 - December 2018

Update from Joanneum Research Materials - Nastaran Hayati-Roodbari, Roman Trattnig




Objectives and Status

  • img.PNGDevelopment of industrially scalable, low-cost processes for the front contact grid of the tandem solar cells, with Total series resistance of electrodes (contact resistance and bulk-resistance) < 1 Ohm cm² and less than 2% of the front side shaded area by img2.PNGelectrodes.
  • Finely printed electrodes with adjustable size and thickness were developed further (top pic.).
  • Laser sintering was chosen for further steps as a sintering method with high efficiency and low costs as well as low environmental impacts (bottom pic.).
  • Further investigations with TLM measurement, SEM, XPS, UPS and AFM revealed significant improvements in the quality of sintered electrode within the last 6 months.                                                       



  • The sintering process was optimized in order to achieve a sintered electrode with good adhesion and the desired reproducible electrical behaviour with low contact resistance (top pic.). The thickness of this electrode was adjusted to improve the microscopic integrity of the thin electrode (bottom pic.).
  • Further development will focus on consideration of an intermediate layer for electrode contact and patterning the CAP layer by employing a protective layer.
  • Electroplating will be developed and utilized for the growth of final front-contact electrodes.